What are Enterotypes?
Enterotypes are different groups of individuals that are classified on the basis of the composition of their gut microbiota. Although the distribution of microbial composition is continuous and there is some overlap between enterotype clusters, this system of classification gives us a rough idea of the dietary and lifestyle habits of an individual. Type of enterotype, one belongs to can be changeable as enterotypes are dynamic, which tends to change under certain factors. The factors influencing enterotypes are birth mode, lifestyle, aging, dietary habits, frequency and variety of administration of antibiotics and genetics.
Clinical use of knowing your enterotype :
- Identification of a disease state in an individual.
- Knowing the risk or susceptibility of developing certain conditions.
- Useful biomarker for changes that occur upon disease progression.
- Helps to understand treatment options and responses.
Depending upon the microbiota composition, enterotypes are classified into 3 types., Type 1, Bacteroides,Type 2- Prevotella and Type 3- Ruminococcus. Categorising people into enterotypes makes it possible to provide personalised microbiome-based recommendations on the basis of the dominant cluster of bacteria that colonises their gastro-intestinal tracts.
Interpretation of three enterotypes :
- Enterotypes 1: Bacteroides are associated with diets enriched in animal proteins and saturated fats, specialized on animal carbohydrates and low in fiber. People belonging to Bacteroides enterotype are likely to improve metabolic parameters under medical interventions.
- Enterotypes 2:Prevotella are associated with enriched fiber-rich diets, carbohydrates-enriched, resistant starch and specialized in degradation of plant fibers. People belonging to Prevotella enriched entrotype are likely to improve in weight loss and have lower LDL-c levels.
- Enterotypes 3:Ruminococcus are associated with membrane transporters of simple sugars and are able to degrade mucin. It functions in the efficient binding of mucin and its hydrolysis then uptake of the resulting simple sugars. This enterotype employ different routes to generate energy from fermentable substrates available in the colon of a specialized in ecological niches.
Your Predominant Enterotype
- In the gut, ruminococcus converts complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) into nutrients that can be effectively utilised by the host.
- These essential bacteria are required to digest variety of fibers.