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Gutuitive Report /
How to Read Your Microbiome Report

How to Read Your Microbiome Report

Introduction to Gut Microbiome

Over 10 trillion microbes inhabit the gut. What can they say about our health?

The gut microbiome comprises the microbes that reside in the gastrointestinal tract. These are bacteria, fungi, viruses etc. They have an impact on the physiology of health and disease conditions. They contribute in protecting the host from the invading pathogen, help in maintenance of the immune system, brain development and behavior and also metabolism of various nutrients.

Each of these microbes has a unique DNA sequence that serves as an identification mark that distinguishes them from closely related species. By using sequencing techniques, these microbes are identified by their characteristic DNA signature.
The interactions between microbes and the host are studied. The microbes partake in metabolic activities as a part of their routine physiological processes. These metabolic activities could be beneficial or detrimental to the host. Unregulated metabolic activities can result in a diseased condition.

Immune mediated

39%

Metabolic / CVD

22%

Uremic Disease

6%

Infectious Disease

6%

Neuropsychiatric Disease

22%

Cancer

5%

Dysbiosis is a state of imbalance that gives rise to diseased conditions as a result of irregularities in the metabolic processes of the microbes. This imbalance causes pathogenetic changes that progress to developing disease conditions.

Microbes and Gut Health

  • Microbial Richness: Distinct Species
  • Diversity Index: Distribution of species
  • Dysbiosis: Microbial imbalance which may cause a diseased condition

Factors Affecting Gut Health

Nutrition and Diet
Antibiotics
Hygiene
Infections

Nutrition And Gut Health

Prebiotics

Function: Foods that are vital in inducing the growth of favourable microbes in the gut.

Biological Function: « Fermentation in the GI tract. Increase in cognition, Ca absorption, immune response, water retention. Decrease in GI tract disorders, cancer risk, triglyceride levels, etc. ».

Examples: Whole Grains, Greens, Onions, Garlic, Soybeans.

Probiotics

Function: Foods contain live microorganisms whose consumption provides health benefits.

Biological Function: Prevention of GI conditions.Reduces risk of colon cancer, hypercholesterolemia,CVD, eczema and obesity. Increased immunity Regulating food allergies and lactose intolerance.

Examples: Yogurt, Sauerkraut, Kefir, Miso, Kimchi

Postbiotics

Function: Bioactive compounds secreted by microbes in the gut, include enzymes, peptides, or cell surface proteins upon its lysis.

Biological Function: Antihypersensitive, Antioxidant, Antiproliferative, Anti Obesogenic Hypocholesterolemic, Anti Inflammatory, Antimicrobial Immunomodulating.

Examples:
Vitamin B, Vitamin K, Glutathione

Understand Your Gut Microbiome Report

The gut is being described to be the second brain, not just because of physiology but because of the diverse range of functions it controls.

Know your microbes

In this section of the report, you will get an overview of the microbial composition of the gut. It will help you understand the dominant community, its role and accordingly help to design the dietary changes required to enrich the diversity.

ENTEROTYPES

Based on the phylogenetic classification (genus level) used in microbiology, the microbial profiles get clubbed into clusters or groups based on similarities in their physiology, anatomy, genetic similarity, etc Researchers thus group all microbial profiles into clusters based on the aforementioned criteria. The enterotypes are dynamic and are subject to change based on factors such as diet, medications (antibiotics), etc. The bacteria found in our gut belong to the 3 enterotypes are as described below:

Enterotype 1

Bacteroides

Bacteroides enterotype is characteristic of a Western Diet.

Diets enriched in refined sugar, animal proteins and saturated fats, specialized in animal carbohydrates and low in fiber. The microbes in this enterotype derive their energy from carbohydrates and proteins through fermentation.

Species diversity is low in this enterotype.

Enterotype 2

Prevotella

Prevotella is associated with an enriched fiber-rich diet including grains, pulses, vegetables and fruit, and refined carbohydrates.

This enterotype prefers carbohydrates and simple sugars that are typically observed in people consuming carbohydrate-based diets.

Enterotype 3

PrevotellaRuminococcus

Ruminococcus is associated with a starchy and whole-grain diet.

Individuals with a dominant Ruminococcus enterotype have little variability in their diet. The bacteria belonging to this cluster derive nutrition from fermentable sugars in the gut. They break down these complex sugars into simpler forms for enhanced uptake. This is a less distinct enterotype.

The enterotype is heavily influenced by the diet. Hence, if an individual tends to eat a particular category of food, a single dominant enterotype would be seen. The enterotype is dynamic. A change in diet and maintaining it for 10-12 weeks will result in a change in the distribution of the enterotypes.

Bacteriodes
13%
Ruminococcus
44%
Prevotella
0%

PHYLA

Phyla is the biological classification of organisms based on a degree of morphological, physiological and developmental similarity.

We identify the major phylas in a geographically matched healthy cohort and compare a users report against it.

BACTEROIDETES

Play an important role in metabolic activities in the human colon like fermentation of carbohydrates, micronutrient digestion, etc.

FIRMICUTES

Firmicutes is a phylum of bacteria, that is the part of the gut flora, which is involved in energy resorption, and related to the development of diabetes and obesity.

ACTINOBACTERIA

The phylum Actinobacteria plays important role in the maintenance of intestinal barrier functions, providing energy for the proliferation of cells and stimulating the immune system.

PROTEOBACTERIA

Proteobacteria contribute to maintaining a low-oxygen environment of the GI tract. Such an environment is conducive for bacteria belonging to other phyla to carry out their metabolic activities. They derive nutrition from proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.

VERRUCOMICROBIA

Verrucomicrobia is found in the gut and constitutes up to 5% of the detected microbial community. Maintain the glucose balance in the gut.

FUSOBACTERIA

Bacteria belonging to the phylum Fusobacterium have an enzyme that functions as a toxin and therefore they contribute to the inflammatory response. Some species are pathogenic to humans.

Cohort

You

0 - 32%

7%

1 - 98%

14%

2 - 98%

74%

0 - 23%

0%

0 - 82%

5%

In this section of the report, the results from the report are compared against a healthy cohort.

MICROBIAL RICHNESS

Microbial Richness represents the total number of microbes present or detected in the gut. Low microbial richness could hamper your overall health, the immune system, inflammatory activity etc.

Pathway Analysis

The pathway is thus defined as the metabolic activity that a microbe in the gut undertakes using certain macro and micronutrients in the diet to produce by-products. Since maintaining a balance in the gut is important, the overactivity of a pathway due to an increase in a certain number of microbes would cause it to be more active than required. The outcome of this overactivity in turn could have a detrimental effect on gut health.

The activity of these pathways can be regulated by moderating one’s diet and supplementing it with the right kind of food sources.

This section helps us to analyze the genes involved in the pathway and what is the outcome. It will help us interpret if the outcome is favourable, unfavorable or normal. Outcome based dos and don’ts are also mentioned for reference.

Microbial Profiles

The different types of bacteria in the gut are identified by sequencing techniques. The number of bacterial profiles that get detected in a sample varies based on the mode of sequencing selected i.e. 16 S RNA or Shotgun metagenomics.

The microbial profiles identified are either beneficial (Probiotic), Harmful (pathogens), or normal (Commensal/Opportunistic). This is represented in a table with the outcome, function and significance of each microbe.

Based on their biological functions, these bacterial profiles are divided into 4 categories:

PROBIOTICS

We have over 1500 microbial profiles in our repository.

Beneficial bacteria of the gut. They help in the digestion of food, destroy disease-causing cells, and produce vitamins. Found in food sources such as yoghurt, kefir, fermented products, etc.

PATHOGENS

Harmful bacteria of the gut. When there is an increase in their number, gut health is heavily compromised. Associated with poor hygienic conditions and are disease-causing.

OPPORTUNISTIC MICROBES

Typically non-pathogenic microorganisms act as a pathogen in certain circumstances. Generally proliferate when immunity is compromised.

COMMENSAL MICROBES

These microbes live in a commensal relationship with the host. They derive benefits from the host (human) without causing any harm to them.

Health Conditions

Interactions between the gut microbiome and the host immune system are complex.

In a healthy, balanced gut, commensal microbes are tolerated and controlled. The pathogens are responded to and countered by the host immune system and the probiotic microbes present in the gut. A healthy gut thus limits the growth of opportunistic pathogens by making the environment unsuitable for them to proliferate.

In the case of dysbiosis in the gut, disease conditions occur due to the proliferation of certain bacteria.

Recommendations

To maintain a healthy gut, we recommend the consumption of food sources that are rich in probiotics and prebiotics.

Our food recommendations are divided into 3 parts:

Part 1

Your superfoods

As the name suggests, the food recommendations are devised to give personalized food recommendations that are healthy for your gut and biodiversity.

Part 2

Food to Limit

These foods may add to the dysbiosis in the gut and hence must be limited.

Part 3

Foods to Avoid

These foods will add to the dysbiosis in the gut and hence must be avoided. These foods can be unhealthy for gut health and biodiversity.

A separate section of nutritional recommendations on the basis of the report has also been provided.

Glossary

To maintain a healthy gut, we recommend the consumption of food sources that are rich in probiotics and prebiotics.

  • Commensal: Microorganisms that colonize the body without causing harm or disease.

  • Dysbiosis: Dysbiosis is a condition of imbalance in the gut caused due to gut microbes. It is often associated with harmful consequences for the host.

  • Host: In biology and medicine, a host is an organism that harbours another organism (parasite, a mutualist, or a commensal).

  • Inflammation: Inflammation is a first-line defence mechanism in the face of aggression. Its objective is to recognize, destroy and eliminate all substances which are foreign to it.

  • Metabolism: Metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that take place inside a living being, in particular, to enable it to stay alive, reproduce, develop and respond to stimuli from its environment.

  • Microbiota: There is a community of approximately 40,000,000,000,000 microorganisms (mostly bacteria but also viruses, archaea, and other fungi) that live in and on us. It's our microbiome - our non-human half that we can't live without. In an amazing system of symbiosis, microbes have co-evolved with us, carrying in their genes the best tools to keep us healthy.

  • Microorganisms: Microorganisms are organisms (therefore living) so small that they can only be observed under a microscope. This term encompasses a variety of very different species, whether prokaryotes (bacteria) or eukaryotes (yeasts, algae). Some also include viruses, although they are bordering on living.

  • Prebiotics: Prebiotics are non-digestible food substances, such as fibers found in fruits, vegetables and whole grains, which stimulate the growth of good bacteria already present in the intestine.

  • Probiotics: Live microorganisms that, when ingested in sufficient quantities, exert positive effects on health, beyond the traditional nutritional effects.

  • Gastrointestinal tract: The gastrointestinal tract (GI, TIG, digestive tract, digestive tract, alimentary canal) is the passage from the mouth to the anus which includes all the organs of the digestive system in humans and other animals. Foods ingested through the mouth are digested to extract.

  • Metabolic pathway: In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a succession of chemical reactions during which an initial substrate is transformed and gives rise to finished products.

  • Enterotype: The classification of the human gut microbiome based on the bacterial clusters.

  • Phylum: A biological classification of organisms based on the degree of morphological, physiological and developmental similarity.

Practitioners

Businesses

Les Cures

Les cures

La Cure Tonus

Complément alimentaire tonus

La Cure Immunité

Complément alimentaire Défenses immunitaires

La Cure Digestion

Complément alimentaire Ballonement

La Cure Anti-Âge

Complément alimentaire Anti-âge

La Cure Articulations

Complément alimentaire articulation genou

La Cure Sport

Complément alimentaire sportif

La Cure Anti-Rides

Complément alimentaire Peau

La Cure Beauté

Complément alimentaire beauté

La Cure Récupération

Compléments alimentaires récupération musculaire

La Cure Sommeil

Complément alimentaire Troubles du sommeil

La Cure Cheveux

Complément alimentaire Capillaire

La Cure Concentration

Complément alimentaire concentration

La Cure Transit

Complément alimentaire Transit

La Cure Anti-Stress

Complément alimentaire anti-stress

La Cure Grossesse

Complément alimentaire grossesse

La Cure Peau Sensible

complément alimentaire peau sensible

La Cure Détox

Complément alimentaire Détox foie

Les Objectifs